Geography of the Shoah (Holocaust)

Geography of the Shoah (Holocaust)

“The Holocaust was geographically widespread and methodically conducted in virtually all areas of Nazi-occupied territory… in different parts of Nazi controlled territory…” “The nature of the Holocaust… the extraordinary human suffering of a specially selected ‘race’, pursued over the length and breadth of a continent and beyond, condemned to mass murder. … every Jew was condemned. …

The Geography of the First Period, 1933-39

The geographic expansion of Nazi anti-Jewish ideology, propaganda, and actions started with the Free City of Danzig…Step by step, from 1933 on, Danzig followed Germany’s lead in her racial policies, although German troops did not march into the city until Sept. 1, 1939… annexation of Austria on March 13, 1938 (Anschluss) … Sudetenland… Memel … Czechoslovakia…Bohemia-Moravia…Slovakia…Carpatho-Ukraine

The Geography of the Second Period, 1939-1944

* German–occupied Europe refers to the countries of Europe which were occupied by the military forces of Nazi Germany at various times during World War II between 1939 and 1945. 


German-occupied Europe

German and other Axis conquests (in blue) in Europe, during World War II. (French North Africa was considered part of France). Light blue is the traditional color used in cartography in Germany to represent Germany and its sphere of influence.
*The New Order in Europe at its maximum extent in 1942: German and other Axis conquests (in blue) in Europe during World War II. (map)

The area in which anti-Jewish measures were imposed is commensurate with the ever-expanding territorial and political German power: following  Sept. 1, 1939, they applied to Poland; April 9, 1940, Denmark and Norway; May 10, 1940, the Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, and France (reaching out to French North Africa and the French Levant); Sept. 8, 1943, the day of partial occupation by German troops, Italy (the anti-Jewish action in Libya started much earlier, on May 2, 1942); April 6, 1941, Yugoslavia and Greece; June 22, 1941, the U.S.S.R. in its expanded boundaries. The war between the U.S. and Japan affected the  Jews who had found refuge in Japanese-dominated areas of Asia, especially those in Shanghai. …Hungary…Rumania…Slovakia…Bulgaria…Croatia. Thirty-eight geographical areas of persecution and extermination were created with the expansion of German sovereignty to parts of Poland, France, and Yugoslavia; the occupation by Germany and her satellites of most areas of Europe and some sections of Africa and Asia; and the partition of states. …
All the satellites did the “preparatory work” for the Final Solution on their own, with German inspiration and guidance, and some even had special commissioners for Jewish affairs (France – Xavier Vallat, followed by Louis Darquier de Pellepoix and du Paty de Clam; Rumania – Radu…”[1]

(by Dr. Jacob Robinson: Coordinator of Research Activities and Publications on the Holocaust for Yad Vashem and YIVO, New York.)

[1] Dr. Jacob Robinson. “The History of the Holocaust. In Holocaust (material originally published in the Encyclopedia Judaica).  A Keter Book; pp. 4-17


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